Menstruation Cycle: Understanding Women’s Reproductive Organs

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Understanding Women’s Reproductive Organs

One of the delicate and most important organs of women’s body is reproductive organs. Women’s reproductive organs include -Two ovaries, two fallopian tubes, and a uterus. The two ovaries are situated on the each side of the uterus and uterus is situated above the cervix between these two ovaries. Similarly, fallopian tubes are long stretchy tubes that are stretchable from the ovaries to the uterus. These organs are responsible for menstruation and pregnancy in women.

How Menstruation Occurs? (Menstruation cycle)

During puberty age (which starts in girls from 9-11 age and ends at 15- 17 ages in average) there can be seen changes in the physical structure of girls. In this age, many hormonal changes occur in girl’s body. When girls enter puberty age the pituitary gland produces hormones that arouse the ovaries and further the ovaries produce hormones like –estrogen and progesterone. The estrogen helps the uterus to form a thick lining underneath it which is known as uterus lining. This lining is packed with nutrients, tissues and blood.  Many eggs are formed in the ovaries and one of an egg which is fully developed in the ovary passes through the fallopian tubes and reaches the uterus. In this process, if the egg gets a chance to fertilize with the sperm cell then there is a chance of that woman to get pregnant. But if the egg do not get chance to fertilize with sperm cells then it breaks down and it get mixed with the uterus lining and further when the estrogen level decreases in the body the uterus lining (which constitutes blood, tissue damaged egg) gets weak and it discharges out of the vagina in form of blood. This shedding out of blood can be known as menstruation.

Menstruation takes place in girls when they reach their puberty age. In average menstruation takes place in girls from around 12-15 years but all the girls do not have the same kind of hormonal changes in their body so some of them get their first menstruation even in 8-9 years age whereas some girls get first menstruation in 16-17 years age. It all depends on the hormones of the body.

Symptoms of puberty are as follows:

  1. Breast of girls starts to increase.

  2. White discharge from the vagina can be noticed. (But discharge should not be itchy or smell bad)

  3. Growth of armpit hair

  4. Growth of vaginal hair

Before the first menstruation, some hormones are secreted in the body of girls. The estrogen and progesterone hormones get increased in the body which causes many premenstrual symptoms. Many symptoms can be seen before some months from the first menstruation and such symptoms are known as premenstrual syndrome. These symptoms can be seen in some girls but if such symptoms get high and if it bothers a lot and creates disturbance in your life and in your work then you should immediately consult with the doctor. These symptoms might not be seen in some girls.

 Some of the premenstrual syndromes are as follows:

  1. Abdominal- pain

  2. Stomach Bloating

  3. Acne

  4. Mood swings

  5. Irritability

  6. Depression

  7.  Anxiety

  8. Lower back pain

  9. Headache

Let us know about irregular periods

When we do not get periods on the correct interval of time and we miss our periods then it can be known as irregular periods. The time interval from the first day of menstruation to another time when menstruation occurs in young girls is 21-45 days and in an adult time, the interval can vary from 21-31 days. In average, it is normally 28 days. But some girls might get an irregular period. Sometimes it’s normal if you miss your periods for a couple of weeks from its actual date. But sometimes girls and women do not get periods for many months. It all happens due to hormonal imbalance.  Some of its causes are -Eating disorder, mental pressure, eating unhealthy foods, smoking habits, use of caffeine, lack of proper nutritional diet, over exercise, recent childbirth, miscarriage, drinking habits, use of drugs etc. To have a regular period we should eat healthy foods, drink plenty of water, do exercise and do not take stress or tension. Some girls get normal bleeding in their periods while some get heavy bleeding. It all depends on the age and on the hormones of the body. Heavy bleeding is normal but if it changes to excess bleeding then we should be very concerned about this matter. If we get excess bleeding in our periods and if we miss our periods for more than 2 months then we can better visit a gynecologist for a checkup.